Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal logo Université Clermont Auvergne & associés

Human Nutrition Unit

Zone de texte éditable et éditée et rééditée

Dr Anthony Fardet

Researcher (PhD)

Towards a more holistic approach of Food
FARDET Anthony

Key Words:

  • Preventive nutrition
  • Holistic approach
  • Degree of processing
  • Health effects of food
  • Sustainability
  • Dietary index



Tel : +33(0)4 73 62 47 04

Preventive nutrition is a holistic science by essence that includes both physiological, behavioral, technological, environmental, economic, social, cultural and religious dimensions. However, until today, nutrition has too often been studied using a reductionist approach associating a food compound with a physiological effect or only con sidering foods as only sum of nutrients. Preventive nutrition research is a branch of nutrition that consists of producing data to define the best way to nourish oneself in order to live as long as possible in good health. However, today, although life expectancy increases every year, the healthy life years tends to stagnate, or even decrease, generating a lifetime in poor health longer and longer. In addition, our diets are not sustainable in terms of environmental, animal welfare, health, socio-economic and socio-cultural.

It is therefore necessary today to define new paradigms to lay the foundations for a new, more ethical and sustainable preventive diet and nutrition. To do this, I propose to examine the consequences of the reductionist and holistic approaches applied to nutrition research, to study the relevance of a new classification of foods based on their degree of processing, to study the role of the complex structure of the food in its health potential ("matrix effect") and to study and characterize the healthy state of the individuals in order to preserve it as long as possible. In addition, the influence of technological treatments on the health value of food should be better defined. Finally, the scenarios for sustainable diets by 2050 should be established in respect of the reality (climate, traditions, availability, etc.) of each of the different regions of the world.


Interviews :

Reportages TV :


My activities as a researcher are divided into 2 main areas: data mining and research animation including public collaborative expertise (ie, ANSES, Groupe Filière Céréales INRA, Société Francophone de Diabète Paramédical...) and private sector (milk and fruit sectors, start-ups for a more sustainable food supply…), scientific coordination (eg, publication of a collective INRAE-Quae book and editing of projects), scientific dissemination and communication to various audiences, editorial activity and foresight thinking.

My research activities from the nutritional data of the literature include:

  1. data mining and statistical analyzes of nutritional data;
  2. Systematic and narrative reviews of associations between diet, degree of food processing and chronic disease risk;
  3. Prospective studies to define the basics of a new preventive diet and more sustainable diets;
  4. The development of an integrative index to characterize the degree of food processing in relation to health.

The results of these research activities are then published in different formats for the attention of different audiences, and thus serve as a support for my research activities and scientific popularization. My current research project (since 2014) is the systematic study of the link between degree of food processing and its health potential


  • Fardet, A., C. Richonnet, and A. Mazur, Association between fruit or processed fruit product consumption, chronic diseases and their risk factors: a systematic review of meta-analyses. Nutrition Reviews, 2019. DOI : 10.1093/nutrit/nuz004
  • Fardet, A. and E. Rock, Reductionist nutrition research has meaning only within the framework of holistic thinking. Advances in Nutrition, 2018. 9(6): p. 655–670.
  • Fardet, A. and E. Rock, In vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential of milks, yoghurts, fermented milks and cheeses: a narrative review of evidence. Nutrition Research Reviews, 2018. 31(1): p. 52-70.
  • Fardet, A., et al., Influence of food structure on dairy protein, lipid and calcium bioavailability: A narrative review of evidence. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 2018: p. 10.1080/10408398.2018.1435503.
  • A. Fardet, C. Méjean, H. Labouré, V. A. Andreeva, G. Féron (2017). The degree of processing of foods which are most widely consumed by the French elderly population is associated with satiety and glycemic potentials and nutrient profiles. Food & Function, 8(2), 651-658.
  • A. Fardet, N. Druesne-Pecollo, M. Touvier, P. Latino-Martel (2017). Do alcoholic beverages, obesity and other nutritional factors modify the risk of familial colorectal cancer? A systematic review. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology.
  • A. Fardet, E. Rock, J. Bassama, P. Bohuon, P. Prabhasankar, C. Monteiro, J.-C. Moubarac, N. Achir (2015). Current food classification in epidemiological studies does not enable reaching solid nutritional recommendations for preventing diet-related chronic diseases: the impact of food processing. Advances in Nutrition. DOI:10.3945/an.115.008789
  • A. Fardet, Y. Boirie (2014). Associations between food and beverage groups and major diet-related chronic diseases: an exhaustive review of pooled/meta-analyses and systematic reviews. Nutrition Reviews, 72(12), 741-762
  • A. Fardet, E. Rock (2014). Towards a new philosophy of preventive nutrition: from a reductionist to holistic paradigm to improve nutritional recommendations. Advances in Nutrition, 5(4), 430-446
  • A. Fardet (2010). New hypotheses for the health-protective mechanisms of whole-grain cereals: what is beyond fibre? Nutrition Research Reviews, 23(2), 65-134

Curriculum Vitae

As an agro-food industry engineer from AgroParisTech (1992) and a PhD in Human Nutrition from the University of Aix-Marseille (1998), I worked for 12 years on the health potential of cereal products using different experimental approaches.  (in vitro studies, in animals and in humans), including metabolomics studies. I conducted this laboratory research at INRA (10 years), at IRD (1 year of scientific cooperation) and at Danone (1 year post-doc) on the different cereal products commonly consumed, which are pasta, biscuits, weaning flours, breads and breakfast cereals, and important cereal compounds such as antioxidants, fiber, polyphenols and lipotropes.

Since January 1st, 2009, my work as a Mission Manager consists mainly of in biblio studies: collection, management, analysis, expertise, synthesis and dissemination of new scientific data based on qualitative (narrative and systematic reviews) and quantitative (data mining) reviews as well as articles of concept, opinion and foresight. The statistical analysis and the data mining of the literature constitute my main methodologies. My subjects of study are mainly data from scientific articles, gray literature and nutritional databases. My work has generated new nutritional data, concepts and/or paradigms for preventive nutrition based on holistic and integrative approaches (compared to the reductionist approach mainly used until today).

My research activities also include many expertise activities: I notably held a 3-year mandate with ANSES in CES Nutrition from 2012 to 2015. Today, my expertise also includes the private sector.