Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal Clermont Auvergne University


Joint Research Unit 1095 Genetics, Diversity and Ecophysiology of Cereals

Bonnot Titouan

2016 December - Wheat grain response to nitrogen and sulfur supply: integrative study of molecular mechanisms involved during the grain development using -omics analyses

Improving the yield potential of cereals represents a major challenge. In this context, wheat grain quality has to be maintained. Indeed, grain quality is mainly determined by the content and the composition of storage proteins, but there is a strongly negative correlation between yield and grain protein concentration. In addition, grain quality is strongly influenced by the availability of nitrogen and sulfur in soils. Nowadays, the limitation of nitrogen inputs, and also the sulphur deficiency recently observed in soils represent major difficulties to control the quality. Therefore, understanding of molecular mechanisms controlling grain development and accumulation of storage proteins in response to nitrogen and sulfur supply is a major issue. The objective of this thesis was to create knowledge on the comprehension of these regulatory mechanisms. For this purpose, the best strategy to identify molecular actors involved in these processes consisted of -omics approaches. In our studies, the nuclear proteome was an important target. Among these proteins, we revealed some transcriptional regulators likely to be involved in the control of the accumulation of grain storage compounds. Using an approach combining proteomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic data, the characterization of the integrative grain response to the nitrogen and sulfur supply was obtained. Besides, our studies clearly confirmed the major influence of sulfur in the control of the nitrogen/sulfur balance that determines the grain storage protein composition. Among the changes observed in the cell metabolism, some genes were disturbed by the modification of this balance. Thus these genes could coordinate the adjustment of grain composition in response to nutritional deficiencies. These new results contribute in facing the challenge of maintaining wheat grain quality with sustainable agriculture.