Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free:

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site:, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Google Analytics

Targeted advertising cookies


The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at or by post at:

24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal Clermont Auvergne University


Joint Research Unit 1095 Genetics, Diversity and Ecophysiology of Cereals

Topic 3: Neo-evolution

The synthesis of neo-polyploids (AB x D for wheat) over a few generations makes it possible to identify in vivo the genomic reprogramming following (post-) polyploidy at the structural level (translocation-type rearrangements) and functional (non-additivity of the expression of parental genes). Synthetic polyploids allow (1) the identification of the specific evolutionary mechanisms (at the scales of gene organization, regulation and function) acting in polyploids in comparison to their diploid progenitors and (2) the use of this knowledge in pre-breeding programs by through crosses with modern cultivars to introduce unique agronomic traits that are lacking in the cultivated gene pool and thus producing material with potentially novel agronomic properties.

Evolutionary model of the modern bread wheat genome

Evolutionary model of the modern bread wheat genome from three progenitors A, B and D. Illustration of the hexaploid bread wheat paleohistory from Ancestor A, (green), Ancestor B (purple) and Ancestor D (brown) within the grasses and more generally flowering plants (angiosperms). Subgenomes are illustrated in different colors so that hybridization events are highlighted with mixed color on the evolutionary tree. Synthetics (nascent polyploids) illustrated in dashed lines can be compared to modern diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheat to investigate post-polyploidy genomic reprogramming processes.

Main reference from the group:
Pont C, Leroy T, Seidel M, Tondelli A, Goué N, Lang D, Bustos-Korts D, Balfourier F, Molnar-Lang M, Lage J, Kilian B, Özkan Hakan, Waite D, Dyer S, WHEALBI consortium, IWGSC Russell J, Keller B, Van Eeuwijk F, Spannagl M, Mayer KFX, Waugh R, Stein N, Cattiveli L, Haberer G, Charmet G, Salse J (2019a) Tracing the ancestry of modern bread wheats. NATURE GENETICS. In press