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24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

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Joint Research Unit 1095 Genetics, Diversity and Ecophysiology of Cereals

Axis 1 - Characterization: How has the world's genetic diversity been shaped?

Appearing in the Fertile Crescent zone about 10,000 years ago, soft wheat is the result of a complex evolutionary history, made up of two events of polyploidization, homoploid speciation, recurrent interspecific hybridizations, domestication, migration, adaptation, selection... This evolutionary history has led to a significant genetic diversity and an extremely wide distribution area. This evolutionary history has led to an important genetic diversity and an extremely wide distribution area. This project aims to understand the relationships between the recent evolutionary history and the genetic diversity of wheat. We are particularly interested in the events that have occurred post-hexaploidization and which concern in particular the diffusion from the Fertile Crescent and the adaptation to new environments as well as the intra- and interspecific crosses undergone by common wheat, whether natural or the result of varietal selection. Genetic diversity will be characterized at the genomic (SNPs, structural variations, chromosome partitioning...), epigenomic (histone marks, chromatin structure, chromosome conformation...) and phenotypic levels.

DiGen Sélection

From the Fertile Crescent, wheat followed human migration routes to Europe and Asia, resulting in two genetically very distinct pools. To understand the differentiation of the European and Asian pools, we are interested in genetic, genomic and epigenomic alterations in response to new environments. To do so, we characterize on genomic (exome or ISBP capture, optical maps...) and epigenomic (H3K27me3, 3D structure...) levels, a collection of landraces that represent the original genetic diversity of wheat, as well as other related species, notably T. dicoccoides. By comparing (epi)genomes and geographical origins (including environmental data), we are studying wheat differentiation and highlighting polymorphisms (SNPs, structural variations, epiallels...) potentially involved in wheat adaptability and phenotypic plasticity.

Varietal selection has also been a determining factor in global diversity. Indeed, it has not only led to a significant bias with respect to the original diversity, but has also generated new genetic diversity through the introduction of related species in selection schemes. Through the analysis of cultivated varieties, but also of new lines produced by the team's pre-breeding and breeding programs (soft wheat, synthetic wheat, triticale...), we wish to characterize modern genetic diversity and study the impact of varietal selection (cross-fertilization in a self-pollinated species, introgressions...) on the stability and functioning of the genome and epigenome.

DiGen Landraces